Terms and abbreviations “ермины, корпус, cлово конфигурации CPU, DIP, SOIC, WDT, USART, PWRT, Sleep
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Configuration Word - a special type of memory, in which there is an information about the different modes of the microcontroller. This memory block is written in the programming of the microcontroller by the programmer. There is an information about the type of clock generator, the protection of the crystal from reading the contents of the memory program / data memory EEPROM, about the resolution of the WDT and other settings in this block. In various microcontrollers different words configuration. Details of the content of the word configuration, see the specs on your microcontroller.

Acquisition Time Ц - time to charge the capacitor ADC input signal level. This parameter affects the resistance source. The greater the resistance, the longer the time needed to charge the capacitor. When setting bit GO / DONE analogue signal is switched off and the process of analog-to-digital conversion began.

ADC (Analog To Digital Converter) Ц This device may be structurally separate device or built-in microcontrollers of firm Microchip. For Detached bit ADC is 12-13 bits. Perhaps the differential inclusion. For the built-in capacity of 10bits.

Bank - a way of addressing memory. Since the PIC16 family has 7-bit for direct addressing of memory, you can work with 128 bytes of memory (including specials. Registers). To use a large quantity of the memory, all the memory is divided into continuous banks, each of 128 bytes. To select a specific bank, set register bits RP0: RP1, ie You can work with 4 memory banks. In the family PIC18 banking system memory is replaced by a more advanced.

Baud Ц This concept is used to calculate the number of units of information (bits) transmitted via the serial in a time interval of 1 second, ie bits per second (bps).

BCD Ц binary-coded decimal form calculus. In hexadecimal, calculating each tetrad (a sequence of 4 bits) can range from 0000 to 1111 (0 to 15). This form is convenient for the microcontroller, but it is not comfortable for humans. Therefore decided to decode hexadecimal to binary-coded decimal. In addition, each tetrad can be from 0000 to 1001 (0 to 9). In this case, one can write the byte number from 0 to 99.

BOR Ц Brown-out Reset - This module is an integral part of most microcontrollers from Microchip. This module converts the microcontroller to the state RESET, if the power is decreased below a certain limit for a certain time interval. Most PIC16 MCUs This limit is set by hardware. In PIC18 microcontrollers that limit can be set on the stage of the programming device in the configuration word. The quality of the module in a microcontroller of Microchip is so high that it eliminates the need for external power supply supervisor.

Brown-out Ц This phrase means that there was decrease in the supply of working below a certain value. This condition can occur during the "drawdown" voltage during the switch / on a powerful load.

Capture Ц - function of module CCP. If the unit is switched to this mode CCP will overwrite the value TMR1 in a specific register when an event occurs. Such an event can be the arrival of rise / fall pulse, the arrival of a number of pulses per foot module CCP.

CCP Ц Capture, Compare, Pulse Width Modulation (PWM). This module is an integral part of most microcontrollers of firm Microchip. It is used to determine the length of the pulse, as well as for the implementation of pulse-width modulation.

CERDIP - Ceramic dual in-line package - Ceramic Case with two-row leg. The distance between the legs of 2.54mm

Common RAM - This is the RAM, which has the same location in all the memory banks. This type of RAM is typical for a family of microprocessors PIC16. "Total RAM" is located at addresses 70h-7Fh. The total area is useful to maintain the necessary variables context switch, because does not require switching of memory banks. This memory area is typically used to store the contents of the battery, and some special registers.

Compare (comparison) - the function of module CCP, the meaning of which is that the device performs an action when the timer register values match the value in the compare register.

Conversion Time - The time required ADC convert the value of the capacitor voltage to a digital value. This time depends on the processor speed, and the selected prescaler ADC.

CPU - Central Processing Unit

DAC - Digital-Analog Converter. This module is built-in microcontrollers of firm Microchip. It is available as a separately-standing chip. However, the digital-to-analog conversion can be performed using the module CCP, a mode PWM

DIP Ц - Dual In Package - housing chip with dual In-line contacts. Most familiar with "our, native" engineer chips series K155, KR1533.

Direct Addressing - - Direct addressing. In this case, the memory address is in the command/ instructions. For example, movwf 0x07

DSP Ц Digital signal processor. Used for digital signal processing and have high performance core.

DCS Ц D igital signal controller. This new type of controller is beginning to produce by company Microchip and called dsPIC30F. These controllers are includes the functions inherent DSP and MCU.

ECCP Ц Enhanced Capture / Compare / PWM - Improved module CCP. Different from the presence of additional features. For example, the module is able to work with 2 or 4 output modules, change the polarity of the output pulse to provide a "dead zone" to prevent "cross-cutting" current, provide emergency shutdown, automatic shutdown and restart.

EEPROM - Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory - Non-volatile memory type. This memory is an integral part of most microcontrollers of Microchip. But it has not very large volume. For microcontrollers PIC16 Ђtypical" value is 128 or 256 bytes of memory EEPROM. This amount of memory is enough to store the calibration constants, setting data and other user settings. Also, this memory can serve as a "reserve area", where the microcontroller can place the values of variables in the case of critical lower voltage.
EEPROM memory is also available as a separately-standing chip with serial access (SPI or I2C). This way the amount of memory can be up to 512Kbit.

EPROM - - Electrically Programmable Read Only Memory. Devices of this type of memory can be programmed directly into the circuit. Wipe produced by irradiation with ultraviolet light.

EMA Ц External Memory Addressing - A module that allows the microcontroller to execute the program in an external memory.

EMI - Electromagnetic Interference

EXTRC - External Resistor-Capacitor (RC) - External circuit of a resistor and capacitor. Many microcontrollers from Microchip is possible to connect a chain as a reference clock. This circuit has a very low price, but its stability is much lower than that of the generator on the quartz resonator. Many microcontrollers from Microchip has an integrated RC oscillator - INTRC. It is calibrated at the factory and its accuracy is 1%

Flash memory Ц non-volatile type of memory. In processors of firm Microchip this type of memory is used as program memory. It can be programmed and erased directly in the scheme. The technology of this memory functionality is almost equivalent EEPROM.

Fosc - The frequency of the clock generator. In addition to its "core" value - set the speed of the microcontroller, this parameter plays an important role in many embedded modules microcontrollers from Microchip. So be careful when changing the CPU clock!

GPIO Ц General Purpose Input / Output - I / Os for general use. characteristically for microcontrollers PIC12Fxxx.

GPR - - General Purpose Register - general register. Part of the data memory (one case), designed to store the values of variables.

HS - - High Speed - One of the modes of the clock, in which the generator is set to work at high frequency. Used to work with quartz at a frequency of 4 MHz to 20 MHz. Is set in the configuration word to program the microcontroller.

IC - Integrated Circuit

ICSP Ц In-circuit serial programming. To program the microcontroller on this protocol uses only three pins of the microcontroller and meals. Thanks to this module, microcontroller programming possible after installing the board, which significantly improves performance in mass production.

ICD Ц In-Circuit Debugger. Built-series microcontrollers Microchip PIC12Fxx, Pic16F87x, Pic16F87xA, PIC18Fxxx. The availability of this module allows using a dedicated device MPLAB ICD2 to program the microcontroller and debug Internally, ie have access to all the working registers, peripherals, etc.

IEEE - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

IIC (I2C) - Inter-Integrated Circuit - A one integrated circuit, developed by Philips. One mode of the module SSP, which is built-in microcontrollers from Microchip. This is a two-wire interface data exchange between different chips. Microchip company produces a wide range of chips, operating on the protocol I2C.

Indirect Addressing - Indirect addressing. In this case, the memory address is not in the instructions. Instruction operates INDF address that represents a mapping memory address register FSR. The command data is taken from the memory, the address of which is indicated register FSR. Instruction cycle - instruction cycle. Events that occur when you run. Stages: Decoding, Reading, Running and Writing. Not all stages are all the team. In order to learn about the stages of a team, please see the description of the command. One instruction cycle is performed in four Tcy Tosc external clocks. Ie the number of operations per second is equal to the clock frequency divided by four.

Interrupt - Interrupt - signal processor, which directs the program to interrupt vector. For the PIC16 family of microcontrollers and is PIC12Fxxx 0h0004H address in program memory. For microcontrollers from Microchip PIC18 family, there are two types of interrupts - interrupt a high level and low level interrupt. To address these interruptions are 0x0008H and 0x0018H respectively. Before changing the flow of the command from PC (Program Counter) is stored in the hardware stack, and then interrupt the program execution resumes from the same place. During the execution of the interrupt the user must take care to preserve the value of working registers.

IntRC - Internal Resistor-Capacitor (RC) - Internal circuit of resistor-capacitor. Many Microchip microcontrollers have generator mode, which you can launch from the internal RC-circuit. These microcontrollers are almost all devices made by technology NanoWatt. In such devices, the internal oscillator is calibrated at the factory and the error does not exceed 1%. This mode does not require external components, which reduces the cost of the product and release the legs that were previously connected crystal oscillator or an external RC chain. Is set in the configuration word to program the microcontroller.

LIN - Local Interconnect Network

LP - One of a generator. Used for low-frequency operation in low-power. Clock speed - up to 200 kHz. Is set in the configuration word to program the microcontroller.

LCD - Liquid Crystal Display

LED - Light Emitting Diode

LSb - Least Significant Bit

LSB - Least Significant Byte

MI2C (MI2C) Ц Master Inter-Integrated Circuit - I2C with hardware devices such as Master for the implementation of the network topology Multi-Master (the network is more than one master).

MOSFET - Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor - FET MOS (metal-oxide-semiconductor) gate structure. This type of device is used as a key element in frequency converters, DC / DC converters, as well as motor control. Microchip firm produces this kind of transistors. A full list can be found on the website Microchip: http://www.microchip.com/1010/pline/analog/anicateg/power/mosfet/index.htm

Motor control Kernel Ц hardware and software implementation of the motor control. Includes modules PWM and software kernel, which allows simple and clear program these modules.

MSb - Most Significant bit

MSB - Most Significant Byte

OST - Oscillator Start-up Timer - Timer is responsible for reliable starting crystal. When the power is waiting for the arrival of timer 1024h pulse before releasing the signal RESET.

OTP Ц one-time programmable memory programs

Pages - - Pages. Method of addressing program memory. Midrange devices have 11-bit addressing on the CALL and GOTO, which brings the length of these teams to 2K words each. In order to use large amounts of memory, program memory is divided into contiguous pages at 2K words each. To refer to a particular page, you need to set bits PCLATCH <5:4>. If manipulation is 2 bits, in accordance with this we can address 4 page.

PBOR Ц Programmable Brown-Out Detection / Reset - Programmable BOR. This module is part of a series of microcontrollers Microchip PIC18. This module converts the microcontroller to the state RESET, if the power is decreased below a certain chapel for a certain time interval. In PIC18 microcontrollers that limit can be set on the stage of the programming device in the configuration word. The quality of the module in a microcontroller Microchip is so high that it eliminates the need for external power supply supervisor.

PC - - Program Counter - register containing the memory address at which the program is the next command.

PCB - Printed Circuit Board

PSP - Parallel Slave Port - The parallel port is used to communicate with the microprocessor data bus.

PDIP - Plastic DIP Ц Plastic DIP - Plastic case-in-line legs. The distance between the legs of 2.54 mm.

PGA - Programmable-Gain Amplifier - amplifier with programmable gain. Microchip firm produces chip MCP6S2x - operational amplifier with programmable gain and multiplexer.

PLVD Ц Programmable Low-Voltage Detection - Programmable low voltage detection. This module is part of a series of microcontrollers from Microchip PIC18. If the voltage is below a certain predetermined level of program-generated interrupt. The emergence of this interruption may signal the start disconnecting the power supply, for example, due to lack of supply voltage. It is recommended to save all important data to non-volatile memory, such as EEPROM.

POR - Power-on Reset - Built microcontrollers from Microchip, which produces micro reset after the power supply voltage and after exceeding them a certain level. This module is designed to ensure reliable start microcontroller. The quality of the module in a microcontroller Microchip is so high that it eliminates the need for external power supply supervisor.

Pull-Up (resistor) - pull-up resistor. Resistor connecting any circuit to the power source (voltage +5 V)

Pull-Down (resistor) - pull-up resistor to ground. Resistor that is connected to the ground any circuit.

PWM - Pulse Width Modulation - PWM. This feature is implemented in microcontrollers Microchip with CCP module.

PWRT - Power-up Timer - Internal module microcontrollers from Microchip. This timer keeps the processor cleared to n milliseconds (see the documentation for your controller), so that the power supply has managed to rise to the required level. The quality of the module in a microcontroller Microchip is so high that it eliminates the need for external power supply supervisor. The work of this unit allowed / prohibited in the configuration word to program the microcontroller.

ROM - Read Only Memory - the data memory of the microcontroller (EEPROM).

RAM Ц Random Access Memory - data memory microcontroller.

Sampling Time - Full-time analog - digital conversion. Includes capture and conversion.

SAW - Surface Acoustic Wave

SLAC Ц integrating ADC.

Sleep Ц a low power mode. Different controllers, this operation is different. In microcontrollers without technology nanoWatt This mode was off the clock. However, many of the modules can maintain their performance. For example continues WDT, ADC, etc. modules. See those. documentation of your Microchip microcontroller to determine the complete list of work / off in this mode, the internal modules.

SOIC Ц slim with 1.27mm lead spacing

SPI - Serial Peripheral Interface Protocol . This type of protocol is the standard for many microcontrollers from Microchip. Its presence is determined by the presence in the microcontroller module MSSP (SSP). Usually a 3-wire interface - output, input, and clock speed. Possible synchronous.

Tad - The time required for AD conversion of one "bit" of a signal.

Tcy - Time team. Tcy = Fosc / 4.

TSOP - Thin Small Outline Package - slim as the distance between the terminals.

USART - Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter - Universal Synchronous and Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter. This module is built-in the majority of microcontrollers from Microchip. It can operate as a full duplex asynchronous port or a half-duplex synchronous port. In asynchronous mode can be connected via a level converter (eg, MAX232, ST232, etc) to a serial port on your computer.

USB Ц Universal Serial Bus. This type of data has received the widest distribution in computer science.

AUSART Ц Addressable Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter - Addressable USART. The difference lies in the fact that it is possible to use a 9-bit data transfer protocol to determine the address / data.

Vref - Voltage Reference - The reference voltage for the ADC and voltage comparison to the comparator. Microchip firm produces two circuits of this nature - MCP1525 and MCP1541. Also, in some microcontrollers from Microchip has built-Vref.

Wake-Up Ц "Awakening" from the state of the microcontroller "sleep". Maybe trigger WDT or other external (internal) event.

WDT (Watch Dog Timer) - watchdog. The main purpose - to reset the processor in the case of "freezing" of the program. Reset occurs when the overflow timer for reliable timer has its own RC oscillator. To run properly, it must be periodically reset. Included in the hardware configuration word to program the microcontroller.

XT - One mode of the clock generator. Used to generate the 100 kHz to 4 MHz. Is set in the configuration word to program the microcontroller.

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